simple site maker
Mobirise

You know that
curiosity killed
the cat?

But no worries, we are happy to
answer your questions. 

BENEFITS OF HUMOUR IN
MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE

Reduction of Stress Hormones     Laughter reduces at least four of neuroendocrine hormones associated with stress response. These are epinephrine, cortisol, dopac*, and growth hormone. (* Dopamine can be metabolized into one of three substances. One such substance is DOPAC.)

Pain Reduction     Laughter (or even smiling) triggers the release of endorphins, the body’s natural feel-good chemicals. Endorphins can temporarily relieve pain, allows a person an overall increased sense of well-being.

Immune System Enhancement      Clinical studies have shown that laughter boosts / strengthens the immune system. Laughter decreases stress hormones and increases immune cells and infection-fighting antibodies, thus improving your resistance to disease.

Respiration Support      Frequent belly laughter empties your lungs of more air than it takes in, resulting in a cleansing effect - similar to deep breathing. Especially beneficial for patients who are suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments.

Cardiac Exercise      A belly laugh is equivalent to ”internal jogging." Laughter can provide good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercises.

Blood Pressure      When laughing we are preventing hypertension. Women seem to benefit more than men for not known reason.

A belly laugh results in Muscle Relaxation.      While you laugh, the muscles that do not participate in the belly laugh, relax. After you finish laughing those muscles involved in the laughter start to relax. So, the action takes place in two stages. Mobirise is an offline app for Window and Mac to easily create small/medium websites, landing pages, online resumes and portfolios, promo sites for apps, events, services and products.

Laughter makes you feel good - and the good feeling that you get when you laugh remains with you even after the laughter subsides.

Humor helps you keep a positive and optimistic outlook through difficult situations, disappointments, and loss.

Laughter helps you relax and recharge. It reduces stress and increases energy, enabling you to stay focused and accomplish more.

Humor shifts perspective, allowing you to see situations in a more realistic, less threatening light. A humorous perspective creates psychological distance, which can help you avoid feeling overwhelmed.

Laughter is contagious—just hearing laughter primes your brain and readies you to smile and join in the fun - which help you stay emotionally balanced & healthy. 

Incorporating more humor and play into your daily interactions can improve the quality of your love relationships— as well as your connections with co-workers, family members, and friends. Using humor and laughter in relationships allows you to:

Humor gets you out of your head and away from your troubles.

Laughter helps you forget judgments, criticisms, and doubts. Let go of defensiveness.

Release inhibitions. Your fear of holding back and holding on are set aside.

Express your true feelings, deeply felt emotions are allowed to rise to the surface.

Strengthens our relationships by triggering positive feelings and fostering emotional connection during humor and playful communication.

Create a strong buffer against stress, disagreements, and disappointment.

When we laugh with one another, a positive bond is active.

Laughing with others is more powerful than laughing alone - shared laughter is one of the most effective tools for keeping relationships fresh and exciting.

Humor is a powerful and effective way to heal resentments, disagreements, and hurts.

All emotional sharing builds strong and lasting relationship bonds, but sharing laughter and play also adds joy, vitality, and resilience.

Laughter unites people during difficult times. 

2014

Smiles are Everywhere: Integrating Clown-Play into Healthcare Practice Prof. Warren, Bernie and Dr. Peter Spitzer. London & N.Y.: Routledge, 2014

Audacity and Insane Courage – Dream Doctors' Secret Remedies Prof. Citron, Atay in Performance Studies in Motion: International Perspectives and Practices in the Twenty-First Century. Atay Citron, David Zerbib, Sharon Aronson-Lehavi, eds., London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama

The Humor Code: A Global Search for What Makes Things Funny Dr. McGraw, Peter and Joel Lerner. N.Y.: Simon & Schuster

2013

How To Raise A Smile: The Sydney Multi-Site Intervention of LaughterBosses and Elder Clowns Australian Journal of Dementia Care Vol. 1, No. 1 June/July, pp. 22-25

2012

Drama Therapy Role Theory as a Context for Understanding Medical Clowning Grinberg, Zohar, Suzana Pendzik et al. The Arts in Psychotherapy 39, 42-51.

Still the Best Medicine, Even in a War Zone: My Work as a Medical Clown Raviv, Amnon. TDR: The Drama Review. 56:2 (T214) 169-177.

2011

The Effect of Medical Clowning on Pregnancy Rates After in vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Friedler S, Glasser S, Azani L, & al Fertil Steril. 95(6) 2127-30.

The Rise of Performance Studies: Rethinking Richard Schechner’s Broad Spectrum (James Harding & Cindy Rosenthal, eds.) London & New York: Palgrave Macmillan

2010

Laughing to longevity—the work of elder clowns Bernie Warren and Peter Spitzer, The Lancet: 378, 9791, 562-3.

2009

Non-pharmacological interventions for assisting the induction of anesthesia in children Yip P, Middleton P, Cyna AM, Carlyle AV. Cochrane Database Jul8;(3):CD006447.

Serious Play: Modern Clown Performance Peacock, Louise, Bristol, UK and Chicago USA: Intellect.

2008

A positive stress-reducing response from laughter listeners Dr. Bachorowski JA, Dr. Owren MJ.Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

Healing Laughter: The Role And Benefits Of Clown-Doctors Working In Hospitals And Healthcare In Prof. Warren, B., (Ed) Using The Creative Arts In Healthcare And Therapy, Routledge, London & New York pp 213 – 228.

Hospital Clowns – Modern-Day Court Jesters at Work Dr. Spitzer, Peter. Lancet 2006; 368: S34-S35.

Hospital Clowns Working in Pairs – In Synchronized Communication With Ailing Children Linge, Lotta. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being. 2008: 3, 27-38.

2007

The Definition of the medical clown's role with adult patients Scheyer R, Nuttman-Shwartz O, Ziyoni H, Harefua (in Hebrew), 147 (1): 25-9, 95.

2006

Laughter can trigger energy inside a person's DNA potentially helping cure disease

It's been said laughter is the best medicine, but no one has so far proved it. Now a Japanese scientist is unlocking the secrets of the funny bone, which he believes can cheer up people's genes.

Geneticist Kazuo Murakami has teamed up on the study with an unlikely research partner: stand-up comedians, who he hopes -- no joke -- can turn their one-liners into efficient, low-cost medical treatment. Genes are usually regarded as immutable, but in reality more than 90 per cent of them are dormant or less active in producing protein, so some types of stimulation can wake them up.

Murakami's tentative theory is that laughter is one such stimulant, which can trigger energy inside a person's DNA potentially helping cure disease. "If we prove people can switch genes on and off by an emotion like laughter, it may be the finding of the century which should be worth the Nobel Prize or even go beyond that," said Murakami, 70, director of Japan's Foundation for Advancement of International Science.

Three years ago, Murakami and Yoshimoto Kogyo Co Ltd, a leading entertainment company, jointly carried out their first experiment to let diabetics laugh at a comedy show performed by the firm's top stand-up comedians after listening to a monotonous college lecture. The two-day experiment showed that their blood glucose levels -- a key gauge for development of diabetes - became lower after they laughed compared with after listening to the yawning lecture.

His latest experiment with the entertainment firm spotted at least 23 genes which can be activated. Eighteen of them are designed to work for immune response, signal transduction and cell cycle, while functions of the remaining five others are still unknown.

The findings, which Murakami says are the first of their kind, are scheduled to be published in January 2006 by Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, a US academic journal.

"A laughing therapy has no side-effect, meaning it is an epoch-making treatment for clinical medicine," he said. "One day it won't be a joke to see patients receive a prescription for a comedy video at a pharmacy for medical treatment.

Having a good laugh has long been thought of as therapeutic. Laughter has been taught by yoga masters in India, home to a growing number of "laughing clubs" whose members get together just to enjoy a chuckle. Expectations from Murakami's research are particularly high in Japan, where medicare costs are increasing year after year as the country rapidly ages.

Even with the research still in its early stages, a Japanese medical publisher, under the editorial guidance of Murakami's research team, began selling DVDs last year instructing patients with diabetes on how to laugh.


Laughter in hospitals reduces the health insurance costs

The ministry of economy, trade and industry believes that laughter therapy could be put to good use in a project as demand grows for preventive medical care.

"If the relation between laughter and health is proved scientifically, it may have a big impact on ways to improve health," said Hikaru Horiguchi, an official of the ministry.

"We also hope that a new type of industry will be created by linking the two different fields -- laughter and medical treatment," Horiguchi said.

With the ministry's financial support, Osaka Sangyo University in western Japan formed a joint venture with researchers, firms and doctors in 2004 to provide elderly people with a complete medical care program combining physical training and laughter therapy.

"It was the nation's first attempt to launch a medicare business with laughter in collaboration with the government, industry and academe," said Mitsutoshi Nishikawa, a university official in charge of the "Daito Dynamic Project" based in Daito city in Osaka.

Nishikawa said Osaka was an ideal location to launch the project as the city is famous for its humour culture, with residents here said to be less hesitant to laugh in public than more taciturn Tokyo. "We believe there is a big business chance here," Nishikawa said. "With the project, we can expect a reduction in medicare and nursing costs," he said. "Moreover, it is important for elderly people to live long with good health." In the program, participants receive a medical check-up and gymnastic exercises while enjoying a comedy show performed by professional comedians.

"I used to laugh a lot when I was young, but I realized that I had not laughed much since getting older," said Kiyomi Yamanaka, a 61-year-old housewife participating in the program.

"But after attending the event, my blood flow has become smooth and I can now get down on my knees, which I couldn't do before."

According to project officials, the 92 participants polled said their combined annual medicare costs fell 23 per cent to 2.26 million yen ($A26,256) after they joined the program.

Nishikawa said: "In the future, we want to make medical treatment something not gloomy but fun. That's our goal." http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2006/01/12/1136956307785.html

2005

Clown Doctors as Treatment for Preoperative Anxiety in Children: A Randomized, Prospective Study Vagnoli l. & al, "Pediatrics, 116, 4, 1013, 2005.

2004

The Clown Doctor Chronicles Simonds, Caroline and Bernie Warren. Amsterdam & N.Y.: Rodopi

Bring me sunshine: the effects of clown-doctors on the mood and attitudes of health care staff Prof. Warren, Bernie In Twohig, P. & Kalitzkus, V., (Eds.)

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Health Illness and Disease Trumble, Agnus, Rodopi: Amsterdam and New York. pp 83-96

A Brief History of the Smile, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest Australia

2003

Laughter therapy against depression, anxiety, hypertension and diabetes Dr Jaqueline Sales, Jornal Hoje, Brazil

2002

Positive emotions and laughter help to control spikes in blood sugar levels Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Iwanaga S, Kawai K, Ishii H, Shoji S, Murakami K., Diabetes research team, Nagoya

Humor Tickles Drug Center that Gives Hedonistic High Pearson H., Nature 2003, vol. 426.

2001

Effect of humour on allergen-induced wheat reactions. Laughter help relieve hay-fever symptoms Kimata, H., Journal of the American Medical Association 2001 Feb 14; 285(6):738.

Is Humour Medicine? Dr. Spitzer, Peter, The Australian Family Physician journal Vol30, No.1, Jan The lead article

Fools Are Everywhere: The Court Jester Around the World. Otto, Beatrice K. Chicago & London: The university of Chicago Press, 2001

Tragedy, Laughter, and Survival Wooten, P. & Ed Dunkelblau. Nursing Spectrum (online)

Using Humor in Crisis Situations Sultanoff, Steve. AATH (online).

How Can You Laugh at a Time Like This? Klein, Allen. AATH. Oct. 2001 (online).Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur in nulla ut magna vehicula libero luctus in ipsum consequat faucibus. Ut porta nulla ac dapibus convallis. Curabitur sit amet massa quam. In ut ex auctor, porta neque quis, sagittis purus. Nunc auctor gravida magna, sed efficitur tortor tristique quis.

1999

Preoperative Clown Therapy for Pediatric Patients Smerling AJ, Scolnick E, Bagiella E & al, Anesthesia & Analgesia 88: 306S, 1999.

Humor, Laughter and Play - Maintaining Balance in a Serious World Wooten, Patty Holistic Nursing Handbook. Dossey and Keegan, L (eds.). Baltimore, Aspen Publishing

Examining the Research on Humor: Being Cautious About Our Conclusions Sultanoff, S. The "President´s Column" in Therapeutic Humor, Publication of the American Association for Therapeutic Humor, Vol. XIII, (3), P. 3.

1998

Humor and well-being in spouse caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease Buffum, M. & Brod, M. Applied Nursing Research, 11(1) pp. 12-18.

Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life Seligman, M. (2nd ed.). New York: Pocket Books.

Humor and pain management Matz, A. Brown, S. Journal of Holistic Nursing. 16 (1) 68-75.

The Courage to Laugh Klein, Allen. Los Angeles, Tarcher,

Rx: laughter McGhee, P., RN, 61 (7), 50-53.

Clown and Trickster, an Encyclopedia of Tradition and Culture Christen Kimberly A., Denver Co, Santa Barbara CA and Oxford, England: ABC-CLIO

Humor and Wellness: Melding the Present and the Future Humor and Heart Disease Sultanoff S., "Therapeutic Humor, XII, 1-2, 1998.

1997

Changes of immunoregulatory cells associated with psychological stress and humor Dr. Kamei, T., Kumano, H., & Masumura, S. Percept Mot Skills, 84 (3 Pt 2), 1296-1298.

Humor and laughter in palliative care Dean, R. A. J Palliat Care, 13 (1), 34-39.

Clowning on Children's Wards Oppenheim, D, Simonds C, Hartmann, O. Lancet, 20-27;350(9094):1838-40.

You´ve Got to be Kidding! Humor Skills for Surviving Managed Care Wooten, Patty Dermatology Nursing 9, 423

Physician-patient communication; The relationship with malpractice claims among primary care physicians and surgeons Levinson, W., Roter, D., Mullooly, J., Dull, V., & Frankel, R. Journal of the American Medical Association 277(7), 553-559.

Managing to Have Fun - Therapeutic Humour Skills and Development Weinstein, Matt. New York: Simon & Schuster

Humor Works Morreall, John. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, Inc.

The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down Fadiman A. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux

1996

Points of correspondence between humor and psychotherapy Richman, J. Psychotherapy, 33(4), 560-566.

Is humor only fun, an alternative cure or magic? The cognitive therapeutic potential of humor Gelkopf, M. & Kreitler, S. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 10(4), 235-254.

Humour: An antidote for Stress Wooten, P. Holistic Nursing Practice. 10 (2).pp. 49-56

Compassionate Laughter Wooten, Patty. Utah: Commune-A-Key.

Health, Healing and the Amuse System McGhee, Paul Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Hospice: humor, heartache and healing Showalter, S. E., & Skobel, S. Am J Hosp Palliat Care, 13 (4), 8-9.

Now You are fit to Live: humour and health Dossey, L. Alternative Therapies 2,p.8-13, 99

The Performance of Healing Laderman, Carol & Marina Roseman, eds.London: Rotledge

1995

Survivor Humor and Disaster Nursing - Nursing Perspectives on Humor. Ritz, Sandy in Buxman, K. (ed), Staten Island,NY: Power Publications

The lifesaving function of humor with the depressed and suicidal elderly Dr. Richman, J. Gerontologist, 35 (2), 271-273.

Play and Laughter, Moving towards harmony Dossey, B.M., Keegan, L., Guzzetta, C.E., Kolkmeier, L.G. in eds. Holistic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice, Kolkmeier L.G., Gaithersburg M.D., Aspen Publishers, , p. 315-330

Hostility, Anger, and Humor-Coping in Schizophrenic Patients Gelkopf, Marc, and Mircea Sigal. International Journal of Humor Research 8.3: 273-284.

The effects of humour on Secretory Immunoglobin A levels in school aged children Lambert, N.K., Lambert, R.B. Pediatric Nursing 21 p. 16-19

Clown Doctors: Shaman Healers of Western Medicine Van Blerkom, Miller Linda, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series 9 (4), 462-475.

Nursing Perspectives on Humor Buxman, Karyn (ed.). Staten Island, NY: Power Publishers

Shining through: the humor and individuality of persons with Alzheimer´s disease Hall, G. R., Buckwalter, K. C., Gerdner, L. A., Stolley, J. M., Kudart, P., & Ridgeway, S. J, in Gerontology Nursing, 21 (3), 11-16.

Humor as a cognitive technique for increasing pain tolerance Weisenberg, M., Tepper, I., & Schwarzwald, J.

How to be Funnier, Happier, Healthier and More Successful Too! Bates, Roger, Minneapolis: Trafton Publish

1994

Therapeutic uses of humor Sultanoff, S., The California Psychologist, Publication of the California Psychological Association, 25.

The Biology of Humor Dr. Fry, William, Int. Journal of Humor Research 7.2 111-126.

Humor and the Mental Health of the Elderly The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy Volcek, Mary Kay., Malabar, FL: Krieger, 111-122.

Humor: a nursing intervention for the elderly Hulse, J. R. Geriatr Nursing, 15 (2), 88-90.

The Use of Humor in the Treatment of People Kisner, Bette. The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 133-156.

Laughter Therapy Goodheart, Annette, Santa Barbara, CA: Stress Less Press

Humor at Work Blumenfeld, E., & Alpern, L., Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers

Clowns of the Hopi Wright, Barton. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland

1993

Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy Fry, William F. & Waleed A. Salameh, Eds..: Professional Resource Press

Effectiveness of the use of humor in the rehabilitation of people with SCI: a pilot study. Kennedy, P., & Marsh, N. J., Am Paraplegia Soc, 16 (4), 215-218.

Humor as a nursing intervention for cancer units Hunt, A. H. (1993). 16 (1), 34-39.

Humor as a Religious Experience Eberhart, Elvin (Cy). Eds. Fry, William F., Waleed A. Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press, 97-120

Managing Humor: When Is It Funny - And When Is It Not? White, C. & Howse, E. in Nursing Management, 24 (4), 80

The Political Exploitation of the Clown Figure in Traditional and Popular Theater in Asia Epskamp, Kees P. International Journal of Humor Research 6.3, 271-284.

1992

The physiologic effects of humor, mirth, and laughter Fry, W.F., Journal of the American Medical Association 267(13), 1857

Humor as therapy for patient and caregiver Wooten, Patty in Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Guidelines to Success. Philadelphia PA: J.B. Lippincott Co.

Clowning as Critical Practice, Performance Humor in the South Pacific Mitchell, William E. ed., Pittsburgh and London: University of Pittsburgh Press, p. viii.

Humor in Counseling and Psychotherapy: A 20-Year Retrospective Shaughnessy, Michael F., and Terresa M. Wadsworth. Psychological Reports 70 (1992): 755-762.

Horrific Humor and Festal Farce: Carnival Clowning in Wape Society Mitchell, William E. " in William E. Mitchell, University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 145-166.

1991

Humor Appreciation and Mood in Stroke Patients Gillikan, L. S., and Peter Derks. " Cognitive Rehabilitation. 9

Humor and the Health Professions Robinson, Vera, 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: C.B. Slack.

Laughter in hell: the use of humour during the Holocaust Lipman Steve, Northvale, N.J:J Aronson Inc.

A qualitative investigation of the use of humor by emergency personnel as a strategy for coping with stress Rosenberg, Lisa, Journal of Emergency Nursing, 17:4.

They Used to Call Me Snow White: Women´s strategic use of humor Barreca, Regina, NY: Viking-Penguin Pub.

1990

Humor and immune system functioning Lefcourt, H., Davidson-Katz, K., & Kueneman, K., International Journal of Humor Research, 3 (3), 305-321.

Does the use of humour as a coping strategy affect the stresses associated with emergency work? Moran, C., Int. Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 8, 361-377.

Treating those who fail to take themselves seriously: pathological aspects of humour Marcus, N. N., AJP 44(3), 423.

Feeling Good: Humor in the facility Green, L. Journal of Long Term Care Administration, Fall, 5-8.

Contributions of humor as perceived by the terminally ill Herth, Kaye, Am Journal of Hospital Palliative Care, 7:1.

The Light Touch Kushner, Malcolm, NY: Simon & Schuster.

By Means of Performance Schechner, Richard and Villa Appel, Cambridge University Press

1989

Humor: a therapeutic approach in oncology nursing Bellart, Judy, Cancer Nursing, 12:2.

Neuroendrocrine and stress hormone changes during mirthful laughter Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A., Fry, W.F., Napier, B.J., Lee, J.W. Hubbard, R.W. Lewis, J.E. & Eby, W.C., American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 298(6), 390-396.

Eustress of mirthful laughter modifies natural killer cell activity Berk, L. & Tan, S. Clinical Research, 37, 115.

Humor techniques for oncology nurses Simon, J.M. Oncology Nursing Forum, v16, 667-0

Making Things Better by Making Them Worse Fay, Allen M.D., NY: Hawthorne Books

Healing Power of Humor Klein, Allen, Los Angeles CA: Tarcher

Head First: the Biology of Hope Cousins, Norman, NY: Dutton

Making Humor Work Paulson, Terry, Los Altos CA: Crisp Publishing

1988

Mirthful Laughter and Blood Pressure Simon, Jolene M "Humor and Its Relationship to Perceived Health, Life Satisfaction, and Morale in Older Adults". Issues in & Mental Health Nursing, v11, 17-31.

Humor and the older adult: Implications for nursing Simon, Jolene M., Journal of Advanced Nursing, v14, 441-446.

Therapeutic Humor: Who´s fooling who? Simon, Jolene M. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Service,

Sense of humor, hassles, and immunoglubulin a: evidence for a stress-moderating effect of humor Martin, R.A. & Dobbin, J. P. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 18(2), 93-105.

Neurophysiology and the Curative Possession Trance A. Ruskin, Tara L., Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series Vol. 2, No. 3, Health and Industry pp. 286-302

A Laughing Place Hageseth, Christian. Fort Collins CO: Berwick Pub Co

Gallows Humor for a Scaffold Setting: Managing aggresive patients on a maximum security forensic unit Kuhlman, Thomas Hospital & Community Psychiatry, v39, 1085-90

1987

Does sense of humor moderate the impact of life stress on psychological and physiological well-being? Porterfield, A.L., Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 306-317.

That´ll Be Five Cents, Please!´: Perceptions of Psychotherapy in Jokes and Humor Dunkelbau, Edward. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange

The ´Conspirative Method´: Applying Humoristic Inversion in Psychotherapy Titze, Michael. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 287

Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy: Advances in the Clincial Use of Humor Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange

Humor in Provocative Therapy Farrelly Frank, and Michael Lynch. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 81-106.

The therapeutic value of humor in aging adults Simon, Jolene M. J of Gerontological Nursing, 14:8, 9-13.

1986

Leffcort, Herbert M. and Rod A. Martin. Humor and Life Stress: Antidote to Adversity. New York & Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1986.

Lefcourt, H. and Martin, R. (1986). Humor and Life Stress. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Dillon, K.M., Minchoff, B., & Baker, K.H. (1985-86). Positive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. International Journal of Psychiatry, 15(1), 13-18.

Rosenheim, E. & Golan, G. (1986). Patients´ reactions to humorous interventions in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 40(1), 110-124.

1985

William Guinee, ‘Confrontation and the Creation of Balance: Ritual Clowning Among the Zuni’. Folklore Forum, Vol. 18, No. 1–2 (1985), pp. 113–35.

Achterberg, Jeanne, Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine, Boston: New Science Library, 1985.

Schechter, Joel. Durov’s Pigs: Clowns. Politics and Theatre. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1985.

1984

Prerost, F. J. "Evaluating the Systematic Use of Humor in Stress Situations." Journal of Adolescents 7 (1984): 267-76.

Black, Donald W. "Laughter". Journal of the American Medical Association, 252:21, 2995-8

1983

Martin, R.A., &. Lefcourt, H.M. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 520

McGhee, Paul E.; & J.H Goldstein (eds). (1983) The Handbook of Humor Research (Volumes I & II). NY: Springer-Verlag.

1982

"Liminal to Liminoid, in Play, Flow, Ritual" in From Ritual to Theatre, The Human Seriousness of Play, New York City: Performing Arts Journal Publications, 1982, pp. 20

Turner, Victor, From Ritual to Theatre, The Human Seriousness of Play, Performing Arts Journal Publications, 1982.

1979

Cushing, Frank Hamilton. Zuni. Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.

1978

Moody, Raymond, Laugh After Laugh: The Healing Power of Humor, Jacksonville, FL: Headwaters Press, 1978.

Cousins, Norman. 1979. Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient. New York: W. W. Norton.

1977

Fry, William F. (1977). The Respiratory Components of Mirthful Laughter. The Journal of Biological Psychology 19 39-50.

Killinger, Barbara. "The Place of Humour in Adult Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 153-56.

Grossman, Saul A. "The Use of Jokes in Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 149-52. Haig, Robin Andrew. The Anatomy of Humor: Biopsychosocial and Therapeutic Perspectives.

Turner, Victor. "Frame, Flow and Reflection: Ritual and Drama as Public Liminality" in Performance in Postmodern Culture, Michel Benamou & Charles Caramello, eds., Madison, Wisconsin: Coda Press, 1977, pp. 33-58

1976

Cousins, Norman. (1976) "Anatomy of an Illness". New England Journal, Springfield, IL: Thomas

Anisimov, A.F. "The Shaman's Tent of the Evenks," in Schechner, Richard and Mady Schuman, eds. Ritual, Play and Performance, Seabury, 1976, pp. 125-138.

Towsen, John H., Clowns, New York, Hawthorn Books, 1976.

- Schechner, Richard and Mady Schuman, Ritual, Play and Performance, Seabury, 1976.

1975

Kirby, E.T., Ur Drama: The Origins of Theatre, New York University Press, 1975.

1974

Farrelly, Frank and Jeff Brandsma. Provocative Therapy. Capitola, CA: Meta Publications.

Carmody, Denise L. Shamans, Prophets and Sages: an introduction to world religion. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1974.

Myerhoff, Barbara, Peyote Hunt, Cornell University Press, 1974.

Myerhoff, Barbara. The Peyote Hunt: The Scared Journey of the Huichol Indians. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press, 1974.

1972

Castaneda, Carlos, Journey to Ixtilan: The Lessons of Don Juan, New York: Pocket Books,

1971

Fry, William F. (1971). Laughter: Is It the Best Medicine? Stanford M.D. 10 16-20.

Fry, William F. (1971). Mirth and Oxygen Saturation of Peripheral Blood. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 19 76-84.

Kubie, L. (1971). The potential of humor in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 861-866.

1970

Makarius, Laura. “Ritual Clowns and Symbolical Behavior”. Diogenes 1970 18: 44.

1969

Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A. Nehlsen-Cannarella et al, Humour associated laughter decreases cortisol and increases spontaneous lymphocyte balstogenesis. Clinical Resident 36

1968

Rappaport, Roy. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Giunea People. Yale University Press, 1968.

1967

Lommel, Andreas, Shamanism: The Beginnings of Art, New York: McGrow-Hill, 1967.

1964

Cousins, Norman. Anatomy of an Illness as Perceived by the Patient, New York: W.W. Norton, 1964.

Kiev, Ari, Magic, Faith and Healing, The Free Press, 1964.

1963

Michael, Henry, Studies in Siberian Shamanism, University of Toronto Press, 1963.

1960

Belo, Jane. Trance in Bali. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.

1941

Honigmann, John J. An Interpretation of the Social-Psychological Functions of the Ritual Clown. Character and Personality 10: 220-226 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH by subjects

1. Herth, Kaye. "Contributions of humor as perceived by the terminally ill". Am J of Hospital Palliative Care, 1990, 7:1.

2. Weisenberg, M., Tepper, I., & Schwarzwald, J. (1995). Humor as a cognitive technique for increasing pain tolerance.

3. Cousins, Norman. (1976) "Anatomy of an Illness". New England Journal, Springfield, IL: Thomas

4. Black, Donald W. (1984) "Laughter". Journal of the American Medical Association, 252:21, 2995-8.

5. Lambert, N.K., Lambert, R.B (1995) The effects of humour on Secretory Immunoglobin A levels in school aged children, Pediatric Nursing 21 p. 16-19

6. Klein, Allen. The Courage to Laugh. Los Angeles, Tarcher, 1998.

7. Levinson, W., Roter, D., Mullooly, J., Dull, V., & Frankel, R. (1997). Physician-patient communication; The relationship with malpractice claims among primary care physicians and surgeons. Journal of the American Med. Ass. 277(7), 553-559.

8. Spitzer, P (2001) The Australian Family Physician journal Vol30, No.1, Jan 2001 the lead articles are on the subject of "Is Humour Medicinal?"

9. Van Blerkom, L (1995). Clown doctors: shaman healers of Western medicine. Med Anthropol Q, 9 (4), 462-475.

10. Klein, Allen. (1989) Healing Power of Humor. Los Angeles CA: Tarcher

11. Robinson, Vera. (1991). Humor and the Health Professions, 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack.

12. Wooten, Patty. "Humor: An antidote for Stress". Holistic Nursing Practice. 1996, 10 (2). pp. 49-56.

13. Martin, R.A. & Dobbin, J. P. (1988). Sense of humor, hassles, and immunoglubulin a: evidence for a stress-moderating effect of humor. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 18(2), 93-105.

14. Cousins, Norman. 1979. Anatomy of an illness as perceived by the patient. New York: W. W. Norton.

15. Wooten, Patty. "You´ve Got to be Kidding! Humor Skills for Surviving Managed Care". Dermatology Nursing. 1997, 9, 423

16. Buckwalter, K. C., Gerdner, L. A., Hall, G. R., Stolley, J. M., Kudart, P., & Ridgeway, S. (1995). Shining through: the humor and individuality of persons with Alzheimer´s disease. J Gerontol Nurs, 21 (3), 11-16.

17. McGhee, Paul. (1996). Health, Healing and the Amuse System. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

18. Wooten, Patty. (1992) "Humor as therapy for patient and caregiver" in Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Guidelines to Success. Philadelphia PA: J.B. Lippincott Co.

19. Buxman, Karyn (ed.) Nursing Perspectives on Humor. Staten Island, NY: Power Publishers, 1995.

20. Wooten, Patty. (1996). Compassionate Laughter. Utah: Commune-A-Key.

21. McGhee, Paul E.; & J.H Goldstein (eds). (1983) The Handbook of Humor Research (Volumes I & II). NY: Springer-Verlag.

22. Wooten, Patty. Humor: An antidote for Stress. Holistic Nursing Practice. 1996, 10 (2). pp. 49-56.

23. Kuhlman, Thomas. (1988) "Gallows Humor for a Scaffold Setting: Managing aggresive patients on a maximum security forensic unit". Hospital & Community Psychiatry, v39, 1085-1090.

1. Dunkelbau, Edward. "´That´ll Be Five Cents, Please!´: Perceptions of Psychotherapy in Jokes and Humor." Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 1987,

2. Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh, Eds. Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy.: Professional Resource Press, 1993.

3. Eberhart, Elvin (Cy). "Humor as a Religious Experience" Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press, 1993, 97-120

4. Farrelly, Frank, and Michael Lynch. "Humor in Provocative Therapy." Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 1987, 81-106.

5. Fay, Allen M.D. (1989, ©1978) Making Things Better by Making Them Worse. NY NY: Hawthorne Books.

6. Gelkopf, Marc, and Mircea Sigal. "It is Not Enough to Have them Laugh: Hostility, Anger, and Humor-Coping in Schizophrenic Patients." HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 8.3 (1995): 273-284.

7. Gelkopf, M. & Kreitler, S. (1996). Is humor only fun, an alternative cure or magic? The cognitive therapeutic potential of humor. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 10(4), 235-254.

8. Gillikan, L. S., and Peter Derks. "Humor Appreciation and Mood in Stroke Patients." Cognitive Rehabilitation. 9 (1991)

9. Goodheart, Annette. Laughter Therapy. Santa Barbara, CA: Stress Less Press, 1994.

10. Grossman, Saul A. "The Use of Jokes in Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 149-52. Haig, Robin Andrew. The Anatomy of Humor: Biopsychosocial and Therapeutic Perspectives.

11. Hageseth, Christian. A Laughing Place. Fort Collins CO: Berwick Pub Co, 1988.

12. Killinger, Barbara. "The Place of Humour in Adult Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 153-56.

13. Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy: Advances in the Clincial Use of Humor. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 1987.

14. Kisner, Bette. "The Use of Humor in the Treatment of People." The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1994, 133-156.

15. Kubie, L. (1971). The destructive potential of humor in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 861-866.

16. Lefcourt, H. and Martin, R. (1986). Humor and Life Stress. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

17. Richman, J. (1996). Points of correspondence between humor and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 33(4), 560-566.

18. Rosenheim, E. & Golan, G. (1986). Patients´ reactions to humorous interventions in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 40(1), 110-124.

1. Bellart, Judy. Humor: a therapeutic approach in oncology nursing. Cancer Nursing, 1989, 12:2.

2. Buffum, M. & Brod, M. (1998) "Humor and well-being in spouse caregivers of patients with Alzheimer;s disease" Applied Nursing Research, 1998 Feb, 11(1) pp. 12-18.

3. Dean, R. A. (1997). Humor and laughter in palliative care. J Palliat Care, 13 (1), 34-39.

4. Dossey, B.M., Keegan, L., Guzzetta, C.E., Kolkmeier, L.G. (1995), Play and Laughter, Moving towards harmony, in eds. Holistic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice, Kolkmeier L.G., Gaithersburg M.D., Aspen Publishers, , p. 315-330

5. Green, L. (1990) "Feeling Good: Humor in the facility". J of Long Term Care Administration, 1990:Fall, 5-8.

6. Hulse, J. R. (1994). Humor: a nursing intervention for the elderly. Geriatr Nurs, 15 (2)

7. Hunt, A. H. (1993). Humor as a nursing intervention. Cancer Nurs, 16 (1), 34-39.

8. Kennedy, P., & Marsh, N. J. (1993). Effectiveness of the use of humor in the rehabilitation of people with SCI: a pilot study. J Am Paraplegia Soc, 16 (4), 215-218.

9. Valiant, G. E. (2000). Adaptive mental mechanisms: Their role in a positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55(1), 89-98.

10. Volcek, Mary Kay. "Humor and the Mental Health of the Elderly." The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1994, 111-122.

11. Matz, A. Brown, S.T. "Humor and pain management". Journal of Holistic Nursing. 1998 March, 16 (1) 68-75.

12. McGhee, P. (1998). Rx: laughter. RN, 61 (7), 50-53.

13. Richman, J. (1995). The lifesaving function of humor with the depressed and suicidal elderly. Gerontologist, 35 (2), 271-273.

14. Showalter, S. E., & Skobel, S. (1996). Hospice: humor, heartache and healing. Am J Hosp Palliat Care, 13 (4), 8-9.

15. Simon, Jolene M. (1987) "The therapeutic value of humor in aging adults". J of Gerontological Nursing, 14:8, 9-13.

16. Ritz, Sandy. "Survivor Humor and Disaster Nursing" In Buxman, K. (ed), Nursing Perspectives on Humor. Staten Island,NY: Power Publications, 1995.

17. Robinson, V. (1991). Humor and the Health Professions, 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack.

18. Rosenberg, Lisa. (1991) "Clinical Articles: A qualitative investigation of the use of humor by emergency personnel as a strategy for coping with stress". J of Emergency Nursing, 17:4.

19. Simon, Jolene M. (1988) "Therapeutic Humor: Who´s fooling who?". J of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Service,

20. Simon, Jolene M. (1988) "Humor and the older adult: Implications for nursing". J of Advanced Nursing, v14, 441-446.

21. Simon, Jolene M. (1988) "Humor and Its Relationship to Perceived Health, Life Satisfaction, and Morale in Older Adults". Issues in & Mental Health Nursing, v11, 17-31.

22. Simon, Jolene M. (1989) "Humor techniques for oncology nurses". Oncology Nursing Forum, v16, 667-670.

23. White, C. & Howse, E. "Managing Humor; When Is It Funny - And When Is It Not?" Nursing Management, 1993, 24 (4), 80 

1. Berk, L. & Tan, S. (1989). Eustress of mirthful laughter modifies natural killer cell activity. Clinical Research, 37, 115.

2. Fry, W.F. (1992) The physiologic effects of humor, mirth, and laughter. Journal of the American Med. Ass. 267(13), 1857

3. Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A., Fry, W.F., Napier, B.J., Lee, J.W. Hubbard, R.W. Lewis, J.E. & Eby, W.C. (1989) Neuroendrocrine and stress hormone changes during mirthful laughter. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 298(6), 390-396.

4. Cousins, Norman. Head First: the Biology of Hope. NY NY: Dutton, 1989.

5. Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A. Nehlsen-Cannarella et al, Humour associated laughter decreases cortisol and increases spontaneous lymphocyte balstogenesis. Clinical Resident 36

6. Fry, William F. (1971). Laughter: Is It the Best Medicine? Stanford M.D. 10 16-20.

7. Sultanoff, S. (Summer, 1999). Examining the Research on Humor: Being Cautious About Our Conclusions the "President´s Column" in Therapeutic Humor, Publication of the American Association for Therapeutic Humor, Vol. XIII, (3), P. 3.

8. Fry, William F. (1971). Mirth and Oxygen Saturation of Peripheral Blood. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 19 76-84.

9. Kamei, T., Kumano, H., & Masumura, S. (1997). Changes of immunoregulatory cells associated with psychological stress and humor. Percept Mot Skills, 84 (3 Pt 2), 1296

10. Fry, William F. (1977). The Respiratory Components of Mirthful Laughter. The Journal of Biological Psychology 19 39-50.

11. Dillon, K.M., Minchoff, B., & Baker, K.H. (1985-86). Positive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. International Journal of Psychiatry, 15(1), 13-18.

12. Fry, William F. (1994). The Biology of Humor. HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research 7.2 111-126.

13. Fry, W., Savin, W.M., (1988) Mirthful Laughter and Blood Pressure, Humour: International journal of Humour Reasearch 1

14. Lefcourt, H., Davidson-Katz, K., & Kueneman, K. (1990). Humor and immune system functioning. International Journal of Humor Research, 3 (3), 305-321.

15. Seligman, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. 2000. Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14.

16. Seligman, M. (1998). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life (2nd ed.). New York: Pocket Books.

17. Shaughnessy, Michael F., and Terresa M. Wadsworth. "Humor in Counseling and Psychotherapy: A 20-Year Retrospective." Psychological Reports 70 (1992): 755-762.

18. Sultanoff, S. (May, 1994). Therapeutic uses of humor. The California Psychologist, Publication of the California Psychological Association, 25.

19. Titze, Michael. "The ´Conspirative Method´: Applying Humoristic Inversion in Psychotherapy." Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 1987, 287

20. Salovey, P., Rothman, A., Detweiler, J. B., & Steward, W. T. (2000) Emotional states and physical health. American Psychologist, 55(1), 110-121.

1. Klein, Allen. "How Can You Laugh at a Time Like This?" AATH. Oct. 2001 (online).

2. Harris David A The Jokes of Oppression: The Humour of Soviet Jews., Izrail Rabinovich. Northvale N.J.:J Aronson, c1988

3. Moran, C.C. and Massam, M. (1997) An evaluation of humour in emergency work. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 3, 26-38.

4. Moran, C.C. (1990) Does the use of humour as a coping strategy affect the stresses associated with emergency work? International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 8, 361-377.

5. Sultanoff, Steve. "Using Humor in Crisis Situations". AATH. Oct. 2001 (online).

6. Wooten, Patty, and Ed Dunkelblau. "Tragedy, Laughter, and Survival". Nursing Spectrum. Oct. 2001 (online).

7. Marcus, N. N. (1990). Treating those who fail to take themselves seriously: pathological aspects of humour. AJP 44(3), 423.

8. Martin, R.A., &. Lefcourt, H.M. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 520

9. Porterfield, A.L. (1987). Does sense of humor moderate the impact of life stress on psychological and physiological well-being? Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 306

10. Prerost, F. J. "Evaluating the Systematic Use of Humor in Stress Situations." Journal of Adolescents 7 (1984): 267-76.

1. Blumenfeld, E., & Alpern, L. Humor at Work. Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers, 1994.

2. Kushner, Malcolm. (1990) The Light Touch. NY NY: Simon & Schuster.

3. Morreall, John. (1997) .Humor Works. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, Inc.

4. Barreca, Regina. (1991) They Used to Call Me Snow White: Women´s strategic use of humor. NY NY: Viking-Penguin Pub.

5. Paulson, Terry. (1989) Making Humor Work Los Altos CA: Crisp Publishing,.

6. Weinstein, Matt. (1997). Managing to Have Fun. New York: Simon and Schuster

7. Therapeutic Humour Skills and Development

8. Bates, Roger. (1995) How to be Funnier, Happier, Healthier and More Successful Too! Minneapolis: Trafton Publish.

9. Lipman Steve (1991) Laughter in hell: the use of humour during the Holocaust.. Northvale, N.J:J Aronson Inc.

10. Wooten, Patty. "Humor, Laughter and Play - Maintaining Balance in a Serious World" In Holistic Nursing Handbook. Dossey, and Keegan, L (eds.). Baltimore, Aspen Publishing, 1999.

11. Dossey, L (1996) N ow You are fit to Live”: humour and health, Alternative Therapies 2, p. 8-13, 99-100.

12. Kraus, P Lefcourt, Herbert M & Martin, Rod A. (1986) Humour and life stress: antidote to adversity Lefcourt, Herbert M. New York; Berlin: Springer-Verlag

About HealthPost

HealthPost is New Zealand’s favourite online supplier of natural health, skincare and household products, proudly based in Golden Bay.

They believe in the products they sell and are proud to be part of people taking responsibility for their own health. HealthPost are more than a "shop" – and are an ever-expanding online resource of blogs, recipes and product reviews, a vibrant wellness community, connecting customers with the information and the inspiration they need to achieve excellent health.

They demonstrate a commitment to natural health by making a huge range of products as accessible as possible, keeping the price down and delivering swiftly and widely. They are dedicated to the continued availability of safe and natural solutions in NZ and beyond.

HealthPost takes pleasure in supporting other local businesses with excellent ethical credentials and helping New Zealand’s natural health and skincare products enjoy the international success that they deserve.

Postal Address 

PO Box 28020, Beckenham
Christchurch 8242

Contacts

Email: smile@clowndoctors.org.nz 
Phone: +64 (0) 21  234 7280